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Chondrosarcoma

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Overview

Chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in the cartilage. It is considered a rare form of cancer, accounting for only 1% of all bone cancers. Chondrosarcoma can occur at any age but is most commonly diagnosed in people between 40 and 60. Men are slightly more likely to develop chondrosarcoma than women.

Types of Chondrosarcoma

There are three main types of chondrosarcoma, which are distinguished by their location in the body:

  • Central chondrosarcoma: This type of chondrosarcoma starts in the long bones of the arms or legs, such as the femur (thighbone) or humerus (upper arm bone).
  • Peripheral chondrosarcoma: This type of chondrosarcoma starts in the flat bones of the pelvis or ribs.
  • Geographic chondrosarcoma: This type of chondrosarcoma is a rare form of cancer that occurs anywhere in the body but most commonly affects the pelvis or shoulder.

Chondrosarcomas can be either low-grade or high-grade tumors. Low-grade tumors grow slowly and are less likely to spread to other parts of the body, while high-grade tumors grow quickly and are more likely to spread.

Causes of chondrosarcoma

There are several possible causes of chondrosarcoma, including:

 

  • Exposure to certain chemicals or radiation.
  • Genetic conditions that affect the development of cartilage.
  • Previous injury or surgery to the affected area.

Risk factors for chondrosarcoma

Several risk factors may increase your chances of developing chondrosarcoma, including:

  • Age: Chondrosarcoma is most common in people over the age of 40.
  • Gender: Men are slightly more likely to develop chondrosarcoma than women.
  • Family history: If you have a family member with chondrosarcoma, you may be at an increased risk for the disease.
  • Existing conditions: People with certain conditions that affect the bones, joints, or cartilage, such as osteoarthritis or Paget’s disease, may increase chondrosarcoma.

Symptoms of chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma can cause many symptoms, including:

  • Pain in the affected area
  • Swelling and tenderness in the affected area
  • A mass or lump in the affected area
  • Difficulty moving the affected joint
  • Numbness or tingling in the affected area

If you experience any of these symptoms, it’s important to see your doctor so they can rule out other potential causes.

Diagnosing chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma can be difficult to diagnose because it often doesn’t cause any symptoms in its early stages. If your doctor suspects you have chondrosarcoma, they will likely order several tests, including:

  • X-rays- An x-ray of the affected area may show signs of tumor growth.
  • MRI- An MRI can provide more detailed images of the affected area and help your doctor better identify the tumor.
  • Biopsy- A biopsy is the only way to diagnose chondrosarcoma definitively. A small sample of tissue is removed from the affected area and examined under a microscope during a biopsy.

Treating chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in the cartilage. It can be challenging to diagnose because it often doesn’t cause any symptoms in its early stages.

If you’re diagnosed with chondrosarcoma, your treatment will depend on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, your overall health, and your preferences. Treatment options for chondrosarcoma include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Surgery:

Surgery is the most common treatment for chondrosarcoma. The goal of surgery is to remove the tumor while preserving as much healthy tissue as possible.

Depending on the size and location of the tumor, this may be done with a wide excision, in which the surgeon removes the tumor along with a margin of healthy tissue.

For larger tumors, or those located in difficult-to-reach areas, a more extensive surgery, such as a limb-sparing surgery, may be necessary.

Radiation therapy:

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells. Before or after surgery, it can be used to help shrink the tumor or kill any remaining cancer cells. Radiation therapy can also be used as a palliative treatment to relieve pain and other symptoms caused by the tumor.

Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It is typically only used for tumors that cannot be removed with surgery or spread to other parts of the body.

After Treatment:

If you’re diagnosed with chondrosarcoma, it’s important to regularly follow up with your doctor. You will likely need regular x-rays and MRI scans to check for tumor recurrence. You may also need to see a physical therapist to help you regain strength and range of motion in the affected area.

Side effects of chondrosarcoma treatment

The side effects of chondrosarcoma treatment will depend on the type of treatment. Surgery may cause pain and swell at the site of the incision and fatigue and weakness. Radiation therapy can cause skin irritation, fatigue, and nausea. Chemotherapy may cause hair loss, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue.

It is important to talk to your doctor about the possible side effects of your treatment plan before beginning treatment.

Living with chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer that can be difficult to diagnose and treat. If you’re diagnosed with chondrosarcoma, it’s essential to work closely with your doctor to develop a treatment plan that’s right for you. With the proper treatment, most people with chondrosarcoma can live long and healthy lives.

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    Conclusion

    The overall outlook of chondrosarcoma depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, your overall health, and the tumor’s aggressiveness. In general, the earlier chondrosarcoma is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. With early diagnosis and treatment, most people with chondrosarcoma can live long and healthy lives.

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