Rectum Cancer is also known as Rectal Cancer. This is a type of cancer that develops in the Rectum. The Rectum is the last 6 inches part of the large intestine. The rectal ampulla mainly acts as a temporary storehouse for feces.

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Rectal cancer arises from the lining of the rectum as well as can occur in men and women. In Rectal Cancer, malignant cells are formed in the tissues of the Rectum. Rectal Cancer is curable if detected at the earliest stage. Older age people are at higher risk of getting rectal cancer.

Rectum Cancer occurs when cells in the rectum develop mutations in their DNA. These mutations cause cells to grow rapidly and uncontrollably. This accumulation of cells forms a tumor. If Rectum cancer is not treated on time then it spreads to nearby organs. Rectal Cancer is one of the most complex types of cancer.

Symptoms of Rectum Cancer

Common symptoms of Rectum Cancer include:

  • A change in bowel habits such as diarrhea, constipation or more-frequent bowel movements
  • Dark or red blood in stool
  • Mucus in stool
  • Narrow stool
  • Abdominal pain
  • Painful bowel movements
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • A feeling that the bowel doesn’t empty completely
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Weakness or fatigue

Causes of Rectum Cancer

In some families, gene mutations passed from parents to children increase the risk of colorectal cancer. The two well-defined genetic colorectal cancer syndromes are:

  • Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC): HNPCC is also called a Lynch syndrome. It increases the risk of Rectum and Colon cancer. People with HNPCC always have a higher risk of developing rectum and colon cancer before age 50.
  • Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP): FAP is a rare disorder that causes development of thousands of polyps in the lining of colon and rectum. People with untreated FAP always have a higher risk of developing colon or rectal cancer before age 40.

Risk factors for Rectum Cancer

The unhealthy lifestyle can increase the risk of Rectum cancer. Major risk factors include:

  • Older age
  • Family history of colorectal cancer or polyps
  • Inflammatory bowel disease like crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
  • Genetic syndromes such as FAP and HNPCC
  • Dietary factors
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity

Diagnosis of Rectum Cancer

Early diagnosis of any cancer is always helpful to cure cancer completely. Various diagnosis methods include:

  • Colonoscopy: This is the most accurate test used to view inside the rectum. Colonoscopy test is also used to remove small tissue samples (biopsies) from suspicious areas.
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC): This test is done to analyze different types of cells in blood.
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA): CEA testing is particularly useful in monitoring patient’s response to treatment.
  • Imaging test: Major imaging tests include CT scan and MRI scans. These tests provide detailed image of organs and also used to determine extent of cancer infections in the body.

Treatment of Rectum Cancer

Rectum Cancer treatment is mainly depending on the type, stage and health conditions of patient. Rectum cancer needs more than one treatment type. Rectal cancer treatments are same as that of the other cancer treatment methods which mainly include:


The main goal of Rectum Cancer surgery is to prevent growth of cancerous cells. Cancer Surgeon decides surgery depending on the type and stage of cancer. Surgery is performed to remove cancerous tumor. For many patients, surgery is combined with other cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Today most of the cancer surgeries are performed by minimally invasive techniques.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams from sources such as X-rays and protons to kill cancer cells. If surgery is not an option then Cancer Surgeon performs combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy as a primary treatment.


In Chemotherapy treatment, powerful drugs are used to kill cancerous cells. Chemotherapy is often used after the surgery to kill any cancer cells that remained in the body. It can be used alone or combined with radiation therapy.

Rectum Cancer is preventable and curable. Today various advanced treatments are developed to cure and control rectal cancer. Specialty Surgical Oncology Hospital strictly follows all the standards for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer. Specialty Surgical Oncology Hospital is well equipped with advanced medical equipment to treat all types and stages of cancer.

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