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Urinary Bladder Cancer

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Overview

The Urinary Bladder is a hollow muscular organ located at the base of the pelvis. The main function of bladder is to store urine. The normal urine storage capacity of bladder is 400-600ml. Urinary bladder cancer occurs in the tissues of the bladder and it is more common in men than women. Mostly bladder cancer affects older people.

Urinary Bladder Cancer develops when cells in the bladder start growing abnormally and rapidly. These abnormal cells develop mutations causing unmanageable and uncontrollable growth of cells. Finally these abnormal cells form a tumor in the urinary bladder.

Types of Urinary Bladder Cancer

There are three types of urinary bladder cancer such as:

  • Transitional Cell Carcinoma: This is the most common type of bladder cancer. It begins in the transitional cells located in the inner layer of the bladder.
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: This is a rare cancer and it occurs due to the formation of thin, flat squamous cells in the bladder after a long-term infection or irritation in the bladder.
  • Adenocarcinoma: This is also a rare cancer type and it occurs due to the formation of Glandular cells in the bladder after a long-term bladder irritation and inflammation.

Symptoms of Urinary Bladder Cancer

Common symptoms include:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Painful urination
  • Frequent urination
  • Urgent urination
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Pain in the abdominal area
  • Pain in the lower back

Causes of Urinary Bladder Cancer

Smoking is the major cause of bladder cancers in men and women. Common Causes of urinary bladder cancer include:

  • Smoking
  • Exposure to cancer-causing chemicals
  • Chronic bladder infections
  • Low fluid consumption
  • Eating a high-fat diet
  • Family history of bladder cancer
  • Past radiation exposure
  • Older age

Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

Early diagnosis is very crucial in the treatment of bladder cancer. Various diagnosis tests and procedures include:

 

  • Cystoscopy: In this test, doctor inserts small, narrow tube called as Cystoscope through the urethra. This test is useful to examine inside structures of urethra and bladder.
  • Biopsy: In this test, doctor collects cell sample from bladder for testing. This procedure is known as transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).
  • Urine Cytology: In this test, a urine sample is analyzed under a microscope to check for cancer cells.
  • Imaging Tests: Imaging tests include CT scan, X ray, MRI and Bone scan.

Treatment of Urinary Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer treatment is depending on the types and stages of cancer. Various treatment options such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are based on the cancer stages.

  • Treatment for stage 0 and stage 1: Bladder cancer treatment for stage 0 and stage 1 mainly includes surgery to remove tumor from the bladder. Chemotherapy is also used to kill cancer cells.
  • Treatment for stage 2 and stage 3: In stage 2 and stage 3 bladder cancer, part of the bladder is removed by surgery, or radical cystectomy is done to remove the whole urinary bladder.

Chemotherapy or radiation therapy is also performed to shrink tumor before surgery.

  • Treatment for stage 4: This is a severe stage of bladder cancer. At this stage, chemotherapy is done to relieve cancer symptoms. Radical cystectomy is also done. Generally at stage 4, cancer spreads to the surrounding area. Hence doctor performs surgery to remove the surrounding area of lymph nodes and to create an alternative way for urination.

Every bladder cancer patient should regularly do follow-up testing for years as per the cancer specialist’s advice because bladder cancer can recur. Smoking should be avoided strictly to prevent bladder cancer. A cancer patient should not lose confidence instead patient should fight cancer.

Cryoablation:

During Cryoablation, a special hollow needle is inserted through the skin and into the kidney tumor. Cold gas in the needle is used to cool down or freeze the cancer cells.

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