Treatment of Bone Cancer
Bone cancer occurs when a tumor, or atypical mass of tissue, is formed in a bone called bone sarcomas.
Cancer may also be malignant; it’s growing aggressively and spreading to other parts of the body.
Bone cancer can affect any bone of your body, but it most commonly begins in the pelvic bone or the long bones in your legs or arms (shinbone, femur, or upper arm).
Cancer from other areas of the body can spread to the bone. Cancer is named after the location where it starts. It comes in a variety of forms. Sarcomas are a kind of soft-tissue tumor that may spread to bones, muscles, and nerves. At the molecular and cellular levels, sarcomas are heterogeneous. As a result, not all bone sarcomas respond to the same treatment options.
This blog covers informational content on the basics of bone cancer.
Types of Bone Cancer
- Osteosarcoma: About one-third of all instances of primary bone cancer are osteosarcomas. Most patients are between the ages of 10 and 25. Osteosarcoma commonly begins near the ends of bones, particularly in the knees, where new tissue grows as youngsters mature.
- Ewing Sarcoma: Ewing sarcoma often develops in four locations: the hip, ribs, upper arms, or thighs. Like osteosarcoma, most of those diagnosed with this malignancy are between 10 and twenty-five. About 15 percent of all primary bone cancers are caused by Ewing sarcoma.
- Chondrosarcoma: Primary bone cancers such as chondrosarcoma are quite frequent in adults over 50. When cartilage is damaged, it may result in a condition known as osteoarthritis. This disease causes about a quarter of all primary bone cancer cases.
Treatment of Bone Cancer
The treatment choices for bone cancer depend on the kind, stage, general health, and personal preferences.
Surgery removes the whole malignant tumor. In most situations, this includes removing the tumor in one piece, along with a tiny amount of good tissue around it. Then, the surgeon replaces the missing bone with bone from another location of your body, bone from a bone bank, or metal and hard plastic.
Large or complex bone malignancies may need amputation of a limb (amputation). However, amputations are becoming less prevalent as new therapies emerge. If amputation is required, you’ll likely be provided with an artificial limb and trained to use it.
Chemotherapy kills cancer cells by injecting powerful anti-cancer medicines into a vein. In certain cases, however, this therapy is ineffective. Chemotherapy, for example, is ineffective in chondrosarcoma but successful in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.
High-powered energy beams, such as X-rays destroy cancer cells. Radiation treatment involves lying on a table while a machine rotates around you, aiming energy beams at specific body parts.
We often perform radiation treatment before surgery to reduce the tumor and simplify removal. Besides, it may treat bone cancer that cannot be surgically removed. Further, this treatment may be performed after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells.
Treatments for different Bone Cancer
For Osteosarcoma Bone Cancer, chemotherapy and surgery modalities are used. Radiation therapy does not work for this type of bone cancer.
In this type of bone cancer, surgery is the main treatment option. There is no role of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in major Chondrosarcoma bone cancer.
This type of bone cancer has several treatment options depending on the extension of the tumor. These options include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery.
How does Surgical Management in Bone Cancer works?
Amputation was formerly the only option for removing bone cancer from a patient’s body. Fortunately, this is no longer the case, as scientists have found various treatment options for bone cancer. Treatment is successful in saving body parts in 90% of the instances.
Bone cancer surgery comprises two basic procedures:
In most cases, limb-sparing surgery is possible for persons with arm or leg tumors; however, this depends on the location and size and whether it has spread to neighboring tissues.
Locomotion may still be preserved by performing a limb-salvage operation after the malignancy has been wholly eradicated. However, this sort of surgery is challenging and requires a high level of expertise from the doctors who perform it.
The surgeon’s goal is to remove the whole tumor while preserving the limb’s function and look as feasible while still removing the tumor. Surrounding structures with tumors are also removed if cancer has spread there. As a last resort, amputation may be necessary for rare instances.
A bone graft (a portion of bone from another region of the body or another person) or an endoprosthesis (an internal prosthesis) is used to replace the chunk of bone removed along with the tumor.
Some individuals who have lost a limb might benefit from reconstructive surgery. Ankle joints may be used to replace knee joints if a limb must be severed at the mid-thigh (including the knee joint) and the lower leg and foot are rotated and connected.
Rotationplasty is the name given to this procedure. Even if the lower leg could be amputated, a prosthetic limb would still be required.
Even if the bone tumor is located in the upper or shoulder location, some patients may have their lower arm reattached to have a functioning but shortened arm.
Bone cancers are rare compared to other types of cancers. However, the type of bone cancer detected and how early it can affect the outlook.
To diagnose bone cancer, doctors usually perform a biopsy. In addition, they will likely perform other imaging tests to determine your cancer’s stage and accordingly develop a treatment plan. Bone cancer can cause severe complications if not treated or managed on time. If you experience any unusual symptoms, consult an expert immediately.
You can book an appointment with our experts to know more about bone cancer in detail.